Alessandro Furlan, Vyacheslav Dyachuk, Maria Eleni Kastriti, Laura Calvo-Enrique, Hind Abdo, Saida Hadjab, Tatiana Chontorotzea, Natalia Akkuratova, Dmitry Usoskin, Dmitry Kamenev, Julian Petersen, Kazunori Sunadome, Fatima Memic, Ulrika Marklund, Kaj Fried, Piotr Topilko, Francois Lallemend, Peter V Kharchenko, Patrik Ernfors, Igor Adameyko




NTRODUCTION: Circulating adrenaline can have profound effects on the body’s “inner world,” adjusting levels depending on demand to maintain organ and bodily homeostasis during daily living. In the more extreme fightor- flight response, the surge of adrenaline is “energizing” through effects on organs and tissues, including increased heart rate and blood glucose levels, and redirecting oxygen and glucose to limb muscles. Chromaffin cells located in the adrenal medulla constitute the main hormonal component of the autonomic nervous system and are the principal source for release of catecholamines, including adrenaline, in the systemic circulation. Understanding the cellular origin and biological processes by which the adrenal medulla is formed during development is needed for mechanistic insights into how the hormonal component of the autonomic nervous system is formed and its relation to the rest of the autonomic nervous system.

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